a) Under the awareness campaign of “Stop Tuberculosis in Ukraine” program, awareness-raising posters “Sputum Sampling Rules” (interlinking) were developed and distributed in 2011-2013 among first aid facilities and specialized TB institutions. b) Unified guidelines on development of local treatment protocols for healthcare facilities in Ukraine clearly specify how the patient’s clinical route should be specified. In accordance with these guidelines the patient’s route, sputum smear transportation routes and schedules should be specified in each local protocol. Considering that the percentage of bacteriologically-confirmed new cases of TB in 2011 totalled 34, in 2012 (cohort 1-3) - 39, such low rate may witness of incompliance with the protocol requirements and with sputum smear transportation pattern and conditions. c) Recommendation is not valid, whereas the divisibility of sputum smear sampling according to the unified clinical protocol should total 2.
10. Sputum smear microscopy should be improved by: (i) teaching patients how to expectorate better; (ii) organizing the transport of sputum samples in rayons and oblasts; and (iii) implementing the front-load method (two sputum samples on the spot) to ensure that at least two samples are available for investigation.